2008年10月3日 星期五

人口販運(一)

我國人口販運相關問題:

(一)國務院報告
先以一擇參訪前的新聞[1]簡介國務院報告內容的重要性:

美國政府今天公佈年度「全球人口販運」報告,台灣列在第二級,比去年提升,但仍不如二○○三、○四年。這個排名不如 南韓香港,而是與 越南、塞內加爾、烏幹達等大多數國家同級,唯總算擺脫了去年的「觀察名單」。
美國國務院此一報告共列了一百四十一個國家和地區。最佳的是「第一級」,包括港、韓、哥倫比亞、匈牙利等廿八個。其次是「第二級」,共有七十五個,除台灣外還有蒙古、
新加坡泰國 日本菲律賓、剛與台灣斷交的 哥斯大黎加、傳說邦交不穩的尼加拉瓜等。
再次一等的是「第二級觀察名單」,共有中國大陸、澳門、
俄羅斯、印度等卅二個。最糟糕的是第三級,共有 北韓、古巴、科威特 委內瑞拉馬來西亞等十六個。
○三、○四年,台灣都名列第一級;○五年落入第二級;去年更落入觀察名單,與對岸同級。今年台灣回升為第二級,對岸則繼續留在觀察名單中。
「第二級」與「第二級觀察名單」最大的區別,在於後者是「受害人的數字十分顯著」。報告仍稱台灣是「男性、女性、孩童被販運從事被迫勞工及性剝削的主要目的地」,「大陸及東南亞婦女被送到台灣假
結婚、真賣淫、及被迫勞動」。報告說,台灣的卅四萬外籍勞工中,半數從事家務或家庭照護,得不到法律保障。報告說,有關當局的作法未能充分符合最低標準的國際規範,但政府不斷努力以改善現況。

美國國務院報告內容:
TAIWAN (Tier 2)
台灣是男人、婦女與小孩遭強迫勞動和性交易買賣的重要地點。來自中國大陸地區和東南亞國家的婦女及女孩,遭經由假結婚、虛偽的受僱以及偷渡等方式,來台從事商業性交易或者強迫勞動。 一大部分來自越南、泰國以及菲律賓男女性外國工人,被合法的引入台灣的工地、漁業和製造業內的從事低技術要求的工作( low-skilled jobs),或者作為家僕,但到達台灣後卻成為仲介業者或者雇主強迫勞動、非自願勞役的目標。 大多數這些合約工人來自貧窮的農村地區,為了來台工作被迫必須支付仲介業者或經紀人14000 美元,導致相當可觀的欠債,進而成為仲介業者或經紀人利用而使這些勞工作為奴役的工具。
Taiwan is primarily a destination for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation. Women and girls from the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) and Southeast Asian countries are trafficked to Taiwan through the use of fraudulent marriages, deceptive employment offers, and illegal smuggling for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. A significant share of male and female foreign workers-primarily from Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines-are recruited legally for low-skilled jobs in Taiwan's construction, fishing and manufacturing industries, or as domestic servants, and are subjected to forced labor or involuntary servitude by labor agencies or employers upon arrival in Taiwan. Many of these contract migrant workers come from poor rural areas and are forced to pay up to $14,000 to recruitment agencies or brokers for a job in Taiwan, resulting in substantial debt that labor agencies or employers use as a tool for involuntary servitude.

在台灣的340,000名外國工人藉由上開的徵人和安排的過程,其中一半的人成為了私人住宅裡工作的家僕或者看護工,而且不受台灣的相關勞動法規所保護以及管控,因此導致非自願勞役的情況。 儘管台灣當局已經努力試圖杜絕人口販運的管道,但是買賣者(Traffickers)仍繼續使用假結婚管道,將東南亞婦女引入台灣從事色情交易或者強迫勞動的工具。
The process for recruitment and placement of the 340,000 foreign workers in Taiwan-half of whom are domestic servants or nurses working in private residences and not protected by Taiwan's labor law-lacks regulation and oversight, and may therefore lead to situations of involuntary servitude. Traffickers continue to use the recruitment of foreign brides by legal international marriage brokers as a means to traffic Southeast Asian women to Taiwan for sexual exploitation or forced labor, despite efforts by Taiwan authorities to curb this channel of trafficking.

台灣當局不完全遵循消除人口販運的最低標準,不過,他們顯然正朝此方向進行努力。當台灣島內針對此人口販運問題保持畏懼同時,台灣當局去年也清楚指出色情交易和強迫勞動此兩個問題。為此,台灣已經提出第一個國家級的計畫,指出各種人口販賣的型態,併組織一個內閣間的委員會與NGO共同協調執行相關計畫。一次2007年3月援救被經由假婚姻方式引台灣的35名印尼婦女的行動之後, 當局開始適當地將這些受害者安置到NGO提妥當的照顧。
Taiwan authorities do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, they are making significant efforts to do so. While the island's trafficking problems remain daunting, Taiwan authorities over the last year showed clear progress in addressing trafficking for both sexual and labor exploitation. Taiwan formed its first national plan of action that covers all forms of trafficking and constituted an inter-ministerial committee to implement the plan in coordination with NGOs. After a March 2007 operation that rescued 35 Indonesian women who were trafficked to Taiwan through fraudulently brokered marriages, authorities began referring these and other victims to NGOs for appropriate care.

雖然如此,為了使台灣進入、達到最低標準。台灣當局在島內處理販賣人口的問題過程中必須證明出有更大的政治意願。人口販運的被害人應被授予更正式的保護,包括提供可以救濟、使雇主曝光的司法管道,以及在等待法庭案件同時可以繼續工作的權利。 關於勞動事務委員會(CLA)應該停止用行政懲罰處理被勞役的行為;改為這些嚴重的犯罪應該(should)被送交到適當的執法當局進行調查,如果被證明為正當,應被加以起訴。台灣當局應該做更多以消除勞動經紀人和雇主將非意願出境的工人遣送出境的能力(. Taiwan authorities should do more to eliminate the ability of labor brokers and employers to deport workers involuntarily.)。

Nevertheless, much more remains to be done to bring Taiwan into compliance with the minimum standards. Taiwan authorities need to demonstrate greater political will in tackling the trafficking in persons problem on the island. Victims of trafficking should be granted formal protection, including access to justice in order to obtain compensation from their traffickers or exploitative employers and the right to work while awaiting court cases. The Council on Labor Affairs (CLA) should stop addressing acts of involuntary servitude with administrative penalties; instead these serious crimes should be referred to the appropriate law enforcement authorities for criminal investigation and, if warranted, prosecution. Taiwan authorities should do more to eliminate the ability of labor brokers and employers to deport workers involuntarily.
Prosecution(檢察部門)台灣當局在報表週期間已經說明瞭在改進反人口販運上的法律上努力。雖然它有許多法律針對人口販賣一些處罰,包括禁止奴隸制度的刑法第296條 和第296-1條和利用賣淫孩子,其中一些條款還規範最高7 年的嚴格刑責,但是台灣沒有禁止販賣人口的全部形式。不過,台灣並未將非法私用勞工的人口販運行為,以及因為欠債而成為奴役狀態的行為給予犯罪化,而且反奴隸制度的法規似乎沒在涵蓋以徵募、使用強迫或詐欺方式剝削被害人的部分。強烈建議制定一綜合的法律可以涵蓋各式的人口販運。針對台灣的移民法開始起草修正案,以提供人口販運的被害人正式保護以及地位雖已經被在立法院內討論但是並沒被通過。
The Taiwan authorities made clear efforts to improve anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts over the reporting period. Taiwan does not prohibit all forms of trafficking in persons, though it has a number of laws that criminalize some forms of trafficking, including laws against slavery-Section 296 and 296-1 of its criminal code-and exploiting children in prostitution, some provisions of which prescribe punishments of up to seven years' imprisonment, which are sufficiently stringent. However, Taiwan does not criminalize trafficking for labor exploitation or debt bondage, and the anti-slavery statute does not appear to cover recruitment or the use of coercion or fraud in exploiting a victim. A comprehensive law covering all forms of trafficking is strongly advisable. Draft amendments to Taiwan's immigration law that would provide formal protection and status to trafficking victims continued to be discussed in the Legislative Yuan but were not passed.

在2006年,台灣當局很顯然的在起訴部分增加努力,使人口販運者定罪並且加以處罰。不過,因台灣的刑事審判系統的性質,使得非常難以蒐集最後判決以及刑度的資料。在整個報表期間,台灣員警和移民局官員已經進行打擊人口販運的行動,破獲了至少四個人口販運組織,其中一個還是使人強迫勞動性質的組織,是以,已經援救出四十位元為供色情交易以及勞動買賣的受害者。法務部和員警過去一年期間也針對人口販賣人口進行了幾次訓練。

In 2006, it was evident that the Taiwan authorities increased efforts to prosecute, convict and punish traffickers. However, the nature of the Taiwan criminal justice system makes the collection of data on final convictions and sentencing extremely difficult. Throughout the reporting period, Taiwan police and immigration officials conducted anti-trafficking operations, disrupting at least four trafficking rings-one of them involving trafficking for forced labor-and rescuing at least 40 victims of sex or labor trafficking. The Ministry of Justice and the police conducted several training events on trafficking in persons throughout the year.
Protection(保護)

雖然總的保護措施繼續保持不妥適狀況,但是台灣當局在保護人口販運受害者方面仍然有保守地進展( modest progress)。有關協助受害者的相關政府規定,例如安置(shelter)、法律援助、精神分析社會咨詢,以及醫療護理仍是參差不齊,沒有針對被害人保護提出清楚一貫地或者協調的計畫。當2006年警政部門以及移民單位 正式提出人口販運被害人鑑別原則後,該原則並沒有被完全加以踐行。受害者繼續被錯誤視為移居者或者被認為是違反台灣賣淫相關法規的違法者,繼而直接因被販運入台而為這些被認定成不合法的行為遭受到處罰。台灣當局繼續將人口販運的被害人安置在拘留中心與被訴的犯人同側,雖然當局在2007年4月成立一個國家移民官,並採取了一個史無前例的措施:在員警以及移民當局針對人口販運案件調查時,將印尼和泰國籍販運的被害人安置於一個NGO的避難所(shelter); 從中國大陸而來的被害人則繼續被留在宜蘭"中華民眾共和國公民"拘留所。不過,在鼓勵更多的外國被害人參與調查以及起訴人蛇上(f traffickers)台灣當局有顯示出進展,雖然當局不能提供遣返被害人(the removal of victims to countries)的話他們可能面困境或者甚至遭到報復的其他合法替代方案。 一些受害者在刑事調查或者審判的第一階段期間會被准許暫時的居留,但是這些並非規則性的被提供,而且更未提供長期居留。一些勞工仲介業者據說仍不斷強迫這些提出遭濫用、虐待的外國工人出境。
Taiwan authorities made modest progress in protecting victims of trafficking, though overall protections remained inadequate. The government's provision of assistance to victims of trafficking, such as shelter, legal aid, psycho-social counseling, and medical care remained uneven, without a well-articulated or coordinated program of victim care. While formal procedures for the proactive identification of trafficking victims were developed by the police and immigration services in 2006, these have not yet been fully implemented. Victims continue to be misidentified as migrants out of immigration status or violators of Taiwan's prostitution laws and consequently punished for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of their being trafficked. Authorities continued to place victims of trafficking in detention facilities alongside accused criminals, though in April 2007, authorities of the newly formed National Immigration Agency took the unprecedented step of referring a group of Indonesian and Thai trafficking victims to an NGO shelter while police and immigration authorities investigated the trafficking crimes committed against them. Victims of trafficking from mainland China continued to be detained in the Ilan "P.R.C. citizen-only" detention center. Taiwan authorities showed progress, however, in encouraging more foreign victims to participate in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, though the authorities could not offer legal alternatives to the removal of victims to countries in which they may face hardship or retribution. Some victims are granted temporary residency during a criminal investigation or first stage of a trial, but these are not offered uniformly and longer-term residency is not offered. Some labor brokers reportedly continued to forcibly deport foreign workers who sought to complain about abuses.
在2006期間,有4447名外籍勞工向13個有經過政府補助的 NGO的shelter尋求庇護( refuge),所以有一個可觀的數量可能已經經歷過遭非自願奴役的狀況。 CLA 經常試圖以協調仲介、雇主以及協商補償方式針對這些抱怨被剝削以及強迫勞動的外國工人問題作出回應,卻非將這些案件交給員警或者進行刑事調查。無論是因為遭到身體上的虐待或者被迫勞動,而逃離雇主的外籍工人,仍冒著可能被根據台灣移民法處罰,或者遭認定應驅逐出境的"逃亡者"的危險;但是,對於那些被認定仍是生效的勞動爭論的工人,CLA在2007年決定延展他們能繼續留在台灣一個月的期間,使他們能在台灣尋找解決這些爭議的機會。台灣沒有法律可以保護外籍工人以防他們在被迫的情況下遭到遣返(依上下文理解,似乎意指遭雇主或仲介業者遣返,或者因為居留到期問題遭到遣返的情形)。
During 2006, 4,447 foreign workers sought refuge in the 13 NGO shelters subsidized by the Taiwan government-a significant number of these workers probably had experienced conditions of involuntary servitude. The CLA often attempts to respond to foreign workers who complain of exploitative work conditions or coerced labor by sitting them down with their labor broker or employer and negotiating a compromise instead of referring these cases to the police for criminal investigation. Workers who flee their employer for whatever reason, including physical abuse or forced labor conditions, run the risk of being identified as "runaways" who can be punished and deported under Taiwan's immigration law; however, for those recognized as workers with valid labor disputes, the CLA in January 2007 extended by one month the period in which they can remain in Taiwan to seek resolution of these disputes. Taiwan has no law to protect foreign workers from being forcibly repatriated.
Prevention(預防措施)
台灣當局在報告期間內展示了防止人口販賣上極大的努力。在2006年11月,內政部有一個針對各式販賣人口形態的國家計畫。行動計畫乃由來自14個部長、代理人以及許多地方NGO 的代表組成的一個永久的行政院打擊人口販賣的委員會。 當局針對外國婦女透過假結婚方式,採取強化資格審查以及增加對結婚夫妻面談的條件等防範措施; 因此,給越南籍新娘(他們是台灣主要的外籍新娘團體)結婚簽證的數量從2005年的7062位以及2004年的11953位,降到3864位。在2006年,台灣當局也禁止婚姻仲介公司的登記,並且宣佈現有的公司將接受更密切的檢查。
Taiwan authorities greatly advanced efforts to prevent trafficking during the reporting period. In November 2006, the Ministry of Interior produced a national plan of action of trafficking in persons that covers all forms of trafficking. The action plan created a permanent Executive Yuan anti-trafficking committee consisting of representatives from 14 ministries and agencies and a number of local NGOs. The authorities also took steps to prevent the trafficking of foreign women through brokered international marriages by restricting eligibility and enhancing interview requirements for foreign brides and their Taiwan spouses; as a result, the number of spousal visas issued to brides in Vietnam-the leading source of foreign brides in Taiwan-dropped for a second straight year to 3,864 down from 7,062 in 2005 and 11,953 in 2004. In 2006, Taiwan authorities also banned the registration of new marriage brokering companies and announced that existing companies would be subjected to closer scrutiny.[1] 劉屏,全球人口販運我擺脫觀察名單,2007.6.13


By WanLi Yang 2008/10/3

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